Scientific Program

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Day 2 :

  • Special Session on Microbial safety of fresh produce needs implementation of a risk-based management approach

Session Introduction

Shalini Sehgal

University of Delhi, India

Title: Microbial safety of fresh produce needs implementation of a risk-based management approach

Time : 10:00 - 10:45

Speaker
Biography:

Shalini Sehgal is working as the Vice Principal and an Associate Professor in the Department of Food Technology, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences of University of Delhi, India. She has 18 years of experience in the field of education and has been associated with various academic and research projects. She has completed her MSc and Doctorate in Dairy Microbiology from National Dairy Research Institute, India. Her area of interest is food safety and she is trained in HACCP implementation, IS 22000: Food safety management system and food safety & food hygiene. She also has expertise in container integrity and undergone training by USFDA at Alameda Lab, California, USA. She has worked as National Food Safety Consultant with WHO and also undertaken projects on safety aspects of street foods and fresh produce and probiotics. She has authored two books and 12 chapters on different areas of food microbiology and food safety. She has published her research work in journals of repute.

Abstract:

Fresh fruits and vegetables are important to the health and well being of the consumer. Global trade in fruits and vegetables and changing horticultural practices have enabled the year-round abundance to be possible, as well as adding new varieties of fresh produce to the market However, over the last several years, the detection of outbreaks of food borne illness associated with both domestic and imported fresh fruits and vegetables have increased. Fruits and vegetables are widely exposed to microbial contamination through contact with soil, dust and water and by handling at harvest or during postharvest processing. They therefore harbor a diverse range of microorganisms including plant and human pathogens. Currently no data is available about the microbial hazards associated with fresh produce in India. In the present study, 200 samples of fresh vegetables (150) and fruits (50) were collected from both local and retail markets from the southern part of Delhi, the capital of India. Then, the total microbial load, yeasts and molds on their surface were estimated. Majority of samples were found to be contaminated. The bacterial counts were found to be much higher than the Yeast and Molds counts. Presence of coliforms was also detected. Then, to eliminate the surface microbial load, various types of antimicrobial dips in varying concentration were used. Among, all the three types of antimicrobial dips tested, the most effective was found to be citric acid at 1% concentration. In this study, an initial survey of 100 retail outlets was done to assess the prevalent food safety practices of the food handlers in the various retail outlets. The findings revealed that the handling practices of the food handlers and their awareness about food safety also plays a critical role in microbial safety of fresh produce. Thus, the safety and quality of fresh produce requires implementation of a risk-based management system approach through all stages of production, distribution, storage, transportation and marketing of food products in the complete food chain.

  • Track 5: Risk Assessment and Risk Management Track 8: Uses of Microorganisms in Food Travk 10: Predictive Microbiology Track 11: Microbial Aspects of Food Spoilage and Quality Track 12: Current & Future Aspects of Probiotics

Session Introduction

Santiago Benito

Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain

Title: Modern trends in Schizosaccharomyces use for winemaking

Time : 10: 35 -11:00

Speaker
Biography:

Santiago Benito is a University Professor in the Madrid Polytechnic University. He is the Director of the Madrid University Experimental Winery, a scientific center. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.

Abstract:

Several scientifics are studying the winemaking potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. For example, yeasts from the genus Schizosaccharomyces traditionally have been studied from a winemaking point of view due to its rapid malic acid deacidification, by converting malic acid to ethanol and CO2. Nevertheless, Schizosaccharomyces genus possesses several remarkable metabolic properties that may be useful in modern quality winemaking, including a malic dehydrogenase activity, high autolytic polysaccharides release, ability of gluconic acid reduction, urease activity, elevated production of pyruvic acid and colour improvement, as well as low production of biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate.

Muhammad Riaz

Sejong University, Seoul-South Korea

Title: Effective utilization of microbial cells for decontamination of Aflatoxin M1 in milk

Time : 11:15 - 11:40

Speaker
Biography:

Muhammad Riaz is the Research Assistant Professor at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University, Seoul-South Korea. He completed his B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. (Hons.) Food Technology from National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan. He holds PhD in Biotechnology from National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad. He worked as an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-Pakistan. His has 12 years, professional, research and teaching experience. He has produced 10 MPhil students and 3 students of PhD are working on food safety issues under his supervision. He has published plenty of research articles in journals of International Repute. Dr. Riaz has won many grants from various donor agencies and working as PI and Co-PI of projects on food safety issues. He is working as Associated Editor in International Journal of Food and Allied Sciences. He has been awarded Research Productivity Awards in 2011 and 2012 from Pakistan Council of Science and Technology. Currently he is working on the decontamination strategies of aflatoxin M1 in Milk, and assessment of microbial and other contaminants including heavy metals, aflatoxins, E. Coli, Coliforms and Salmonella in food and food products.

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is one of the category 1 carcinogenic compound found in milk. AFM1 is usually found in milk from animals fed on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated fodder. AFB1 is converted in AFM1 in liver and get absorbed into the milk during biosynthesis. AFM1 is considered as one of the potential human carcinogen, cytotoxin, teratogenic and genotoxic agent. Various strategies including, microwave heating, pasteurization, sterilization, binding with clay and microbial cells have been adopted to degrade, decontaminate and removal of this toxic compound from milk. However, decontamination of AFM1 by binding it with microbial cell culture and then removal by centrifugation is considered as the most effective. In the current study three strains of lactic acid bacteria, a yeast strain of Saccharomyces cereveisae and a mixture of both were used to evaluate their binding potentials for AFM1. Two different concentrations of AFM1 0.05 and 0.1 µg/l were spiked in milk samples in the presence of various concentrations and their combinations of microbial cells. The concentration of AFM1 and microbes were found to significantly affect the binding potentials of microbes. Saccharomyces cereveisae, lactobacillus helveticus and the mixture of microbes at the concentration of 1010 cfu/ml were found to be most effective for binding of AFM1. The stability of the AFM1-microbial-cell complex revealed safe usage of microbes for the reduction of AFM1 levels up to harmless limits.

Speaker
Biography:

Guzin Kaban has received her PhD degree from University of Ataturk in 2007. She is currently a Professor in Department of Food Engineering at the same university. She has more than 30 articles published in academic journals scanned by SCI and SCI-Expanded. She has been working on traditional Turkish meat products and is a Co-Author of six chapters in four published books. Her studies have predominantly focused on the lactic acid bacteria and coagulase negative staphylococci, as well as volatile compounds of traditional Turkish meat products. She is also a Member of Advisory Commission on Meat Products, Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry.

Abstract:

In this research, effects of Lactobacillus sakei S15 and Staphylococcus xylosus GM92, isolated from sucuk, a traditional Turkish dry-fermented sausage, on volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of heat-treated sucuk (semi-dry fermented sausage) were investigated. Three different heat-treated sucuk groups (control, L. sakei S15 and L. sakei S15+S. xylosus GM92) were produced under controlled conditions. The profile of volatile compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase microextraction (SPME). Samples were taken from the batters, after fermentation (48 hours at 22 °C), heat-treatment (inner temperature at 68 °C) and drying stages. Sensory analysis was carried out on the final product. A total of 66 compounds (9 sulfur compounds, 3 alcohols, 4 ketones, 7 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 6 esters, 8 aldehydes, 6 aromatic hydrocarbons, 1 furan and 22 terpenes) were identified from sucuk samples. Use of L. sakei S15 or L. sakei S15+S. xylosus GM92 showed very significant or significant effects on 14 volatile compounds. Some volatile compounds occurred during the heat treatment stage. Significant increases were observed in the amounts of volatile compounds in drying stage. L. sakei S15+S. xylosus GM92 showed a higher sensory score than the control and L. sakei S15 in terms of color.

Speaker
Biography:

Abdel Moneim has been awarded his PhD in 2001 and pursued a postdoctoral fellowship at University of Kobe, Japan. He is expert in “Food Science and Technology, his main concern is food microbiology. He has authored a large number of articles in reputed journals and has been invited to different international conferences. He published many books in the area of food science and technology. He is a member of many national and international academic associations.

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of some essential oils on inhibiting fungal growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production. Clove oil was found as the best among six different oils tested against the radial growth at the concentration of 0.05 mL/100 ml. However, other oils were also significantly better than the control except the pumpkin oil. Although pumpkin oil was slightly effective than the control at its higher concentration (0.05 ml per 100 ml), but it was not effective at its lower concentrations (0.00, 0.01 and 0.03 ml/100 ml). All tested oils were significantly better than the control in suppression of mycelia growth and highest suppression was accomplished by clove oil at 0.05 ml/100 ml concentration, while, pumpkin oil was not effective. Although pumpkin oil was slightly better than the control at its higher concentration (0.05 ml/100 ml), it was not effective at its lower concentration (0.00, 0.01 and 0.03 ml/100 ml). Spore germination was also affected by the oils tested. Clove oil gave complete inhibition at its higher concentration followed by Cummin, Rehan, Garlic and Desert date, while Pumpkin oil was the least one. Aflatoxin production was highly affected by the essential oils tested. Clove and Cummin exhibited a complete inhibition followed by Rehan, Garlic and Desert date while Pumpkin oil was not effective.

Speaker
Biography:

Caure Barbosa Portugal has completed his PhD in Enological Microbiology at the University of La Rioja, Spain (2012), following his Postdoctoral studies in the College of Agriculture ‘Luiz de Queiroz’ (ESALQ, University of São Paulo) in Piracicaba, Brazil. He is currently responsible for fermentation microbiology researches in the Laboratory of Technology and Quality of Beverages of ESALQ. He has published papers regarding fermentation processes in wine, beer and cachaca, focused in spontaneous fermentations, non-conventional yeasts and microbial control of beverages.

Abstract:

Cachaca is the Brazilian distilled spirit, produced by fermentation of sugarcane juice and subsequent distillation. Some cachacas have a story to tell, showing an intimate relationship with the surrounding environment, regional heritage and traditional practices. The artisanal production mainly relies on spontaneous fermentation processes and includes different exogenous sources of microbial populations to the must with fermentative cycles that usually last 18–30 hours with high incidence of authochtonous yeasts. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts usually present low fermentative performance but uncontrolled growth of these microorganisms can lead to dangerous levels of undesirable or harmful compounds. In well-driven processes, these microorganisms may contribute to flavor, reflecting typical characteristics of the product. Although these approaches may give rise to cachacas with higher aromatic complexity, they can lead to sluggish and stuck fermentations and give way to early spoilage by undesirable microorganisms. Healthy spontaneous fermentations may provide higher diversity environments, enabling yeast species to mainly act as a cluster and propitiate a richer floral, fruity character. Besides, recent climate anomalies show direct correlation to musts with unusual low assimilable nitrogen contents, leading to early dominance and persistence of less demanding yeasts and overgrowth of bacterial communities. Such conditions also seem to have induced microenvironments with low species’ evenness and spoilage microorganism dominance. Our results have helped to better understand the role of the native microbiota and the impact of these players in the production of high quality cachacas, in addition to assist producers to adopt insightful agricultural, handling practices and strict control of technical guidelines.

Speaker
Biography:

Shalini Sehgal is working as the Vice Principal and an Associate Professor in the Department of Food Technology, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences of University of Delhi, India. She has 18 years of experience in the field of education and has been associated with various academic and research projects. She has completed her MSc and Doctorate in Dairy Microbiology from National Dairy Research Institute, India. Her area of interest is food safety and she is trained in HACCP implementation, IS 22000: Food safety management system and food safety & food hygiene. She also has expertise in container integrity and undergone training by USFDA at Alameda Lab, California, USA. She has worked as National Food Safety Consultant with WHO and also undertaken projects on safety aspects of street foods and fresh produce and probiotics. She has authored two books and 12 chapters on different areas of food microbiology and food safety. She has published her research work in journals of repute.

Abstract:

Consumers are becoming more aware of functional foods and nutritional supplements and the potential role of these products in balanced diet and in ensuring good health. Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular as functional foods because of their health benefits. In coherence with the global scenario, the demand and supply for probiotics in India too is at a steep rise. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer awareness and perception about probiotics. The research design also evaluated the type of probiotic products being sold in the Delhi market, their current labeling and storage practices. The storage temperature is critical to the functionality of the probiotic products as inappropriate storage temperature at any step post manufacture may result in decline of the probiotic microorganisms. A cross sectional random population survey using questionnaire across NCR about the knowledge and perception of the Indian consumer (n=735) about probiotics was conducted. Majority of the consumers were not aware about the concept of probiotics and were not able to differentiate probiotics and fermented foods. The perceived barriers to purchase of probiotics included cost and availability. Onsite analysis of the probiotic products at the retail outlets (n=132 outlets) showed a storage temperature deviation as high as 22 °C which is detrimental to the viability of probiotic microorganisms and thereby the functionality of probiotics. The viable counts were found in range for majority of probiotic foods. The labeling practices of probiotic products (n=213) revealed that there is no mention of the species name and health claims by majority of the Indian brands although it is a must as per the guidelines down by ICMR-DBT, India. There is an urgent need of a regulatory regime governing the sale of probiotic products in the country.

Speaker
Biography:

Ahlam Badreldin El Shikieri has completed her PhD from Queen Margaret University and has an MBA from Leicester University, UK. She is a registered Consultant Nutritionist, a Certified Public Health Nutritionist and an Associate Professor currently working in Saudi Arabia as the Head of the Clinical Nutrition Department at Taibah University. She has served as an invited speaker at several workshops and conferences in Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Germany and Taiwan. She has supervised several research projects for students both at Master and PhD levels and acted as an External Examiner for postgraduate thesis. She undertook several researches focusing on assessing the nutritional status of cancer patients, children, malnourished hospitalized patients and many others related to public health nutrition. She is a Member of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, British Nutrition Society, World Public Health Nutrition Association and others. She is a Reviewer for various journals including the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior and has acted as an author for more than 16 published research papers and newsletter articles.

Abstract:

One of the oldest forms of food preservation methods in the world is fermentation. Many countries use microorganisms to ferment indigenous foods for many reasons including increasing the shelf-life and enhancing the taste and texture thus enriching the human diet, avoiding losing raw materials, reducing cooking time, improving protein quality and carbohydrate digestibility as well as eliminating toxic and anti-nutritional factors such as cyanogenic glycosides. In the Asian continent, taking Indonesia as an example, fruit and vegetables, soybean, rice and cassava, pork, buffalo and mare milk are all being fermented using lactic, mould or alcoholic fermentation. Moreover, the African region is considered having the richest varieties of lactic acid fermented foods including cereals, legumes, tuber roots, milk, fish and meat. Sudan, one of these countries has around 60 fermented foods items. Long time ago and until now, special concentration is being put on the benefits of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to human health; one of which is probiotics. The latter has important roles to play including lowering blood cholesterol levels, preventing and treating diarrhea and altering the immune system. It has been shown that LAB is associated with vitamins’ enrichment and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The last properties are being associated with the protection against various diseases including hypertension, altered mood, depression and other chronic conditions. Several factors might contribute to the safety of fermented foods thus affecting the human health and need not be neglected. In this presentation, selected types of fermentation, fermented food products in selected countries and the health implication of the intake of fermented foods will be presented.

  • Young Research Forum
Speaker
Biography:

Adèle Silbande is a PhD student in Food Microbiology research at the university of Antilles in Martinique. She works on the post-mortem microbial ecosystems of tropical fishes, Thunnus albacares and Sciaenops ocellatus, and the impact on the quality of the products (ECOSYSP). This research is realized with the PARM (Pôle agroalimentaire régional de Martinique) and Ifremer/EM3B (Ecosystèmes microbiens et molecules marines pour les biotechnologies) laboratories under the supervision of Dr. Françoise LEROI. She will defend her thesis work on December 2016 with four published or submitted papers on the subject.

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to describe precisely the bacterial ecosystem of the yellowfin tuna flesh widely consumed in Martinique. In addition to the culture-dependent methods, a Next-Generation Sequencing platform (Illumina MiSeq) was used on the bacterial DNA of the tuna steaks stored in ice (AIR – 0°C), vacuum (VP – 4/8°C) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP – 4/8°C) until their respective sensory rejection point. At these dates, several bacterial strains were isolated and then inoculated in sterile tuna flesh to characterize their spoiling potential (challenge test). The organoleptic rejection of AIR products was observed at day 13 when total bacterial counts equaled 106 - 107 cfu.g-1. No extension of shelf-life was provided by VP and MAP. According to the metagenomic analysis, Rhodanobacter terrae was the main species of the freshly caught tuna. At the sensory rejection time, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp. dominated the AIR samples while B. thermosphacta alone or a mix of B. thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbiota of MAP and VP products, respectively. Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia spp. were categorized as non- or lightly-spoiling bacteria by the sensory panel; B. thermosphacta and Carnobacterium spp. exhibited moderate effects and were characterized by butter/caramel odors; Hafnia paralvei and Serratia spp. were considered as strong spoilers with pyrrolidine-like odors. When species were co-inoculated (by pair), the association between B. thermosphacta and Carnobacterium spp. favored a stronger deterioration while the addition of Pseudomonas spp. or B. thermosphacta to H. paralvei inhibited the developpement of unpleasant odors.

Speaker
Biography:

Zahra Sulaiman Al-Kharousi has completed her M.Sc. in 2011 in food science and nutrition, microbiology. Her specialization in Bachelor was medical laboratory science, microbiology. She is a lab supervisor in the department of food science and nutrition in college of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. Now, she is conducting her Ph.D. study in food microbiology. Her research is about resistance of bacteria isolated from fruits and vegetables to antibiotics and disinfectants. She has 3 published papers. She has been known as an outstanding student and had a GPA of 4.0 on a 4.0 scale in her M.Sc.

Abstract:

If left untreated, the antibiotic-resistance problem might engage us in a difficult global war against tiny bacterial superbugs. Local efforts to address and manage this problem in various environments will eventually contribute to a better global tackling. Fresh fruits and vegetables can be heavily inhabited by bacteria that can act as a significant reservoir for antibiotic-resistance genes. This study was aimed to determine antibiotic-resistance of bacteria isolated from fresh produce. One hundred and five samples of fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries were used to isolate 3 groups of bacteria; Enterobacteriaceae (92 isolates), Enterococcus (31 isolates) and Staphylococcus aureus (3 isolates). Bacteria were identified by PCR and VITEK 2 system and many of them were opportunistic pathogens. Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were resistant to ampicillin (57.6%), cephalothin (42.4%), cefoxitin (26.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (19.6%), tetracycline (8.7%), nalidixic acid (5.4%), trimethoprim (5.4%), kanamycin (3.3%) and chloramphenicol (1.1%). Some isolates showed intermediate resistance to imipenem (3.3%) and ertapenem (1.1%). Resistance to cefoxitin indicated possible presence of Ambler class C (AmpC) β-lactamase and this was confirmed by a three-dimensional method in 22 isolates. Enterococcus bacteria were resistant to tetracycline (19.4%), erythromycin (9.7%) and chloramphenicol (3.2%). Intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin (51.6%) and vancomycin (9.7%) was also found. S. aureus isolates were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. These results suggest that fresh produce may play an important role in disseminating antibiotic-resistant bacteria through the food chain. The possible consequences for ingestion of bacteria harboring antibiotic-resistant genes and their interaction with gut microbiota are also discussed here.

Speaker
Biography:

Syed is currently in the final year of his PhD degree programme and is working on a project entitled “Probiotics survival in food products and retention of probiotics traits” based at the Food Safety Centre, Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania (Australia). He is winner of Endeavour Executive Award (2010) and completed a professional developed course at UTAS. Previously he has served in food industry sector for 8 years and as Lecturer in Food Technology at Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan for 12 years. He has delivered nine research presentations at international conferences with publications in conference proceedings and one research paper publication.

Abstract:

Our aim was to investigate bacterial growth patterns and corresponding proteomes of Lactobacillus casei GCRL 163 (a cheddar cheese isolate) when cultured in modified MRS broths without glucose and acetate as carbon sources (fermenters operated anaerobically, pH 6.5). Growth in the basal medium (peptone, yeast extract and MRS salts) was minimal but was significantly improved by addition of 0.1% Tween 80 or 0.2% triammonium citrate, with highest growth rate and extent observed for citrate plus Tween 80. Stationary-phase cells were lysed then proteins trypsin digested and analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using two-sided t-test (Perseus software version 1.5.031) with a permutation-based FDR of 0.05. In the presence of Tween 80, proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism (aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase), tricarboxylic acid pathway (pyruvate carboxylase subunit B) and phosphotransferases were significantly upregulated whereas lipid-related metabolism proteins were significantly depressed compared to the basal medium control or citrate-grown cells. Tween 80 plus citrate cultures showed abundant levels of lipid-related metabolism proteins and ABC-type transporter substrate-binding proteins (absent in cells grown in Tween 80 alone) that facilitated co-metabolism of substrates, producing higher growth rates. Comparison across proteomes identified the involvement of several uncharacterised proteins related to MerR transcriptional regulation of growth during starvation and involvement of autoinducer-2 kinase in sensing or phosphotransport of normally poorly-utilized substrates. These data suggest that Lb. casei GCRL 163 can use Tween 80 and citrate alone or Tween 80 in combination with citrate as a carbon source, sustaining growth in absence of sugars.

Speaker
Biography:

Camila Andrea Bernal Castro completed her studies in industrial microbiology at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana at the age of 23 years, she performanced for one year, as a young researcher in the laboratory of molecular parasitology at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. In 2013, she has published a paper in the journal Molecular Biology Reports: Molecular characterization of calcineurin B from the non-virulent Trypanosoma rangeli kinetoplastid indicates high gene conservation, she has attended congresses such as XX CONGRESS Latin American Federation of Parasitology and XV Congress of the Colombian Association of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine and the XI CONGRESS OF RESEARCH. In 2015, she presented an oral presentation at the National Meeting of Research and Development at the National University of Colombia named: Evaluation of properties that determine the shelf life of blackberry pulp including bee pollen. She is currently a master's student in food science and technology from the National University of Colombia in Bogota.

Abstract:

Functional foods in addition to providing a nutritive value, they must demonstrate a benefit to health by a physiological effect in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, in this category are the probiotics, which have traditionally been included in dairy products, a new trend is the inclusion of these microorganisms in fruit and vegetables . The inclusion of these microorganisms in vegetable matrices is a challenge for the industry of tropical fruits, however the fruits, vegetables and cereals have been shown to be substrates for cellular synthesis and production of lactic acid. Colombia is considered a primary producer of fruit, however there is high post-harvest losses, which requires the development of technological strategies. In vitro assays have been realized in this investigation about the pH as critical factor in the inclusion of probiotics, the development of a synthetic medium of fruit which was allowing to simulate the formulation of a nectar of fruit, curves of calibration of the growth of the microorganisms and the evaluation of the viability, the pH and the acidity in a nectar of mango with probióticos through a curve of growth. The aim of this work is to evaluate the viability of probiotics cultures of commercial type (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum) in fruits as: Andean berry commonly known “Mora de Castilla” (Rubus glaucus Benth), Mango (Mangifera indicates), Papaya (Carica papaya) and Strawberry (Strawberry x ananassa L), for the production of juices and drinks.

  • Poster Presentation

Session Introduction

Maarit Maki

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Finland

Title: Antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of berry extracts
Speaker
Biography:

Maarit Mäki has completed her PhD in Food Science from Helsinki University, Finland. She has been working as senior scientist since 1998 at Natural Resources Institute Finland.

Abstract:

Antioxidative and antimicrobial properties were tested from the samples of berries and juice press cake of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa/mitchurinii) and rose hips (Rosa rugosa), leaves of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and stems and shrubs of bilberry. All samples were extracted with two different solvents: water and 50 % ethanol (aq) with solid/liquid ratio approximately 1:10. The most interesting samples, sea buckthorn leaf, bilberry shrub and blackcurrant juice press cake, were selected for further extraction studies with pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). Antioxidant capacities were measured from all above extracts. The radical scavenging ability of the plant extracts was measured with the ABTS method and a lecithin liposome model was utilized to investigate the ability of the extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation. As a result, the highest antioxidant capacities were observed with the extracts from the leaves of sea buckthorn, lingonberry and bilberry, and bilberry shrubs. The 50 % ethanol extraction yielded to higher antioxidant capacities than the water extraction. The PHWE treatment yielded to slightly higher radical scavenging activity and slightly lower lipid oxidation inhibition activity than the 50 % ethanol extraction. Antimicrobial properties of the most interesting PHWE extracts were tested by agar diffusion tests. The extracts were tested on Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes. Except for blackcurrant juice press cake, PHWE extracts showed good antimicrobial effect on S. aureus, P. fluorescens, Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. No inhibition was detected on L. monocytogenes.

Speaker
Biography:

Edwina Romanens completed her Master of Science ETH in Food Science in 2009. While working on her Master’s thesis at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in the Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, she studied the microbiology of Ecuadorian cocoa bean fermentation. After having worked for 4 years in the food industry as a technical sales assistant and project manager, she started her PhD at ETH Zurich with a focus on cocoa bean fermentation in Honduras.

Abstract:

Fermented dry cocoa beans are the basic raw material for the production of chocolate. Their fermentation is a spontaneous process and is characterized by a succession of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and acetic acid bacteria (AAB). Metabolites produced in the fermentation process are involved in the development of flavour precursors and the characteristic colour of fully fermented beans. As it is carried out on farms, cocoa bean fermentation is subject to various agricultural and operational practices, and hence the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans obtained varies. The aim of our research was to develop a lab-scale model system adapted to a 5-day on-farm fermentation in Honduras, which can be used as a simple tool for optimizing the fermentation process. Five-day fermentations, each with up to 1 kg pulp-bean mass from hybrids of Trinitario, were performed in laboratory incubators followed by subsequent drying of beans in a small drying oven. During the fermentation process different parameters, such as temperature, pH, pulp content, and microbial counts of LAB, yeasts and AAB, were monitored. A final quality test of the dried beans was carried out using a traditional cut-test and sensory analysis. The lab-scale model-system developed during our study achieved similar physical parameters and microbial counts when compared to a Honduran on-farm cocoa bean fermentation. This enables the testing of various influencing factors, such as genetics, operational practices, or the application of starter cultures at small scale.

Speaker
Biography:

Yoshihisa Urita is working as a professor at Toho University. He is the department director of General Medicine and Emergency Care Center. He has completed his masters in medicine from Toho University School of Medicine in 1985. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals. He is the board member of Japanese Society of Endoscopy and Japanese Society of Hospital Medicine.

Abstract:

Introduction: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a gastroduodenal disorder that presents as postprandial fullness, early satiation or epigastric burning despite no evidence of a structural disease that is likely to explain the symptoms for over 6 months. To FD patients we use various therapies, such as administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), Acotiamide, histamine-type 2 receptor antagonists, prokinetic agents. However, the efficacy of these agents is limited. Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide derived from marine brown seaweed (Mozuku). The effect of fucoidan has reported as anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-thrombotic, anti-adhesive H. Pylori, anti-ulcerogenic, improvement of gastric emptying function, anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities and so on. Patients & Methods: Between March 2015 and July 2015, we enrolled 5 patients who were diagnosed with FD. All patients already use some agents (e.g., PPI, Acotiamide and TJ-43). We have a questionnaire (FSSG) before, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after ingesting fucoidan soft capsule (240 mg/day for 4 weeks). This questionnaire (FSSG) is a self-report instrument containing 12 questions written in a simple and easy-to-understand language. As reported previously by Kusano and colleagues (2004), the following definitions were used to identify symptoms in the F-scale: “Do you get heartburn?”; “Does your stomach feel bloated?”; “Does your stomach ever feel heavy after meals?”; “Do you sometimes subconsciously rub your chest with your hand?”; “Do you ever feel sick after meals?”; “Do you get heartburn after meals?”; “Do you have an unusual sensation in your throat?”; “Do you feel full while eating meals?”; “Do some things get stuck when you swallow?”; “Do you get bitter liquid coming up into your throat?”; “Do you burp a lot?”; and “Do you get heartburn if you bend over?”. Symptoms frequency was measured on the following scale: Never=0; occasionally=1; sometimes=2; often=3 and always=4. If the patient has a score of more than 7 point, GERD is considered as positive. This study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the ethical committee at Toho University. Results: It was recognized that FSSG score was decreased by ingesting fucoidan in 4/5 patients. Conclusion: It is concluded that ingesting of fucoidan will improve abdominal symptoms and FSSG score for refractory FD patients.

Speaker
Biography:

Carlos Eduardo Serrano Maldonado is currently a PhD student of Biochemical Sciences at National Autonomous University of Mexico. He has worked in the search and characterization of antibacterial compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria, including bacteriocins and peptidoglycan hydrolases. He is a Teacher of Food Chemistry at the Faculty of Chemistry of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Abstract:

Cotija cheese is an artisanal mexican food produced from whole raw milk. No thermal step, neither starter cultures are used in the process. After a three month ripening stage, it presents an acceptable microbiological quality and no pathogenic bacteria have been detected in it. This could be caused by the production of antibacterial compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), like peptidoglucan hydrolases and bacteriocins. The LAB genus most commonly isolated from Cotija cheese is Enterococcus and several strains have shown antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Enterocin A is a pediocin-like bacteriocin produced by some Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis strains. It belongs to class IIa bacteriocins which display a high anti-listerial activity that could be interesting for application as a food bio-preservative. In this work seven Enterococcus strains were isolated from artisanal Cotija cheese, which were identified as E. faecalis (QA1 and QB3) and E. faecium (QC4, QD2, QE2, QG5 and A5-1). They are non-pathogenic and they showed antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes by agar diffusion assay. A specific PCR reveals that six of the seven strains harbor the gene that codes for enterocin A (entA). Its expression was detected by identification of mRNA, Tris-Tricine gel electrophoresis and zymography. These strains have a biotechnological potential for their direct application in fermented foods or to produce antimicrobial peptides for food formulation.

Speaker
Biography:

Myrna Elena Olvera Garcia has studied Food Chemistry at Chemistry Faculty at National Autonomous University of Mexico and completed a Master’s degree in Biochemical Science at the same institution, about the pathogenic and probiotic potential of Enterococcus spp. isolated from a Mexican handmade cheese. She is currently a PhD Student in Biochemical Science with a bioinformatic specialization directed to the comparative genomic analysis. In 2014 she was teaching at Faculty of Chemistry. She has published four papers focused in antibacterial compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and genome sequencing of bacteria isolated from Heterotermes sp. Termite Gut.

Abstract:

Enterococci isolated from food have useful biotechnological traits, such as bacteriocin production and a probiotic behavior, however their role during ripening, related to enzymatic activities such as proteolysis and lipolysis is not fully elucidated. Nowadays, bacterial genome sequencing and bioinformatic analyses are useful to improve the knowledge of all coding sequences in a genome in order to have an insight of the biochemistry during ripening. In contrast, enterococci are the most controversial genus among lactic acid bacteria because they have been associated with nosocomial infections. Therefore, the aim of this work was to give a comprehensive outlook of the metabolic potential of one E. faecalis and one E. faecium strains, related to cheese ripening, through their genome sequencing. The strains were isolated from an artisanal dairy product namely Cotija cheese. Besides, a genomic comparative analysis was carried out in order to differentiate food strains from nosocomial ones and to establish biomarkers associated to the former. Genes related to a proteolytic and lipolytic activities were detected, as well as genes coding for enzymes involved in flavor and odor development. Furthermore, coding genes for antibacterial compounds (enterocins and peptidoglycan hydrolases) were identified. Through a comparative genomic strategy, genetic characteristic (absence of plasmids and low presence of the main virulence factors and of antibiotic resistence) were recognized to differentiate food from nosocomial strains. Additionally class II bacteriocin and type I restriction enzymes coding genes are proposed as biomarkers of adaptation to food environment.

Speaker
Biography:

Silvia Simona Grosu Tudor has completed her PhD in 2009 at the Institute of Biology of the Romanian Academy. Her Postdoctoral studies were funded by The National Authority for Scientific Research, Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation, Romania. Her scientific experience is illustrated by the contribution to thirteen research projects, both national and international, as Collaborator to ten of them and as Director to other three. She has more than 20 original papers (of which 14 in international journals), 26 posters and 6 oral communications presented in national/international conferences.

Abstract:

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained considerable attention in the fermented dairy industry because of their potential application as viscosifiers, texturizers and emulsifying agents. EPS produced by the food-grade microorganisms with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status are important sources of natural alternatives to commercial additives of plant or animal origin. In this study, LAB isolated from different plant origin materials was screened for their ability to produce EPS. The taxonomic affiliation of the EPS producing strains was determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. Nine of the 146 tested strains have been shown to produce EPS in MRS medium with sucrose, all belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides species. One strain, namely L. mesenteroides 109, has been shown to produce large amounts of EPS, of about 19 g/L. All isolated EPS have a high molecular mass of above 1400 kDa and a monomer composition dominated by the presence of glucose. The rheological properties and the EPS production in different growth media were studied for four LAB strains producing high amounts of EPS, L. mesenteroides 109, 112, 124, 127 and one strain, namely Weissella cibaria 120 that was not able to produce EPS when grown in MRS with sucrose. Among the EPS producing strains, the most promising one regarding the potential application in the food industry is L. mesenteroides 109, as it produces considerable amounts of EPS (over 25 g/l), together with a high viscosity (over 2400 mPa s) in soy milk supplemented with sucrose.

Speaker
Biography:

Medana Zamfir has completed her PhD in 2003 and is a senior scientist at the Institute of Biology of the Romanian Academy. Her main research topics are: lactic acid bacteria, food microbiology, biochemistry. The scientific experience is illustrated by the contribution to many research projects, both national and international. The main research results were included in more then 50 original papers, and many communications presented in national/international conferences.

Abstract:

Lactococcus lactis 19.3 was isolated from raw milk and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It produces a bacteriocin with a wide inhibitory spectrum, including other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteriocin has a low molecular mass, it is heat resistant and stable in a wide pH range. In this study, the relation between bacterial growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in various media. Moreover, the mode of action was studied and the corresponding gene was sequenced. The producing strain was able to grow in cows milk and soy milk and the maximum bacteriocin activity was detected in the early exponential phase, as in MRS medium. The bacteriocin has a bactericidal, concentration- and strain-dependent effect. When added to concentrated suspensions of the sensitive cells, the bacteriocin caused a rapid decrease of the cells viability, and caused major morphological changes, as were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the bacteriocin was able to completely repress the growth of the sensitive strains when added in a sufficient amount prior or immediately after inoculation. Finally, the bacteriocin was identified by sequencing the encoding gene. The presence of nisin gene was confirmed. The nucleotide sequence and the deduced aminoacids sequences were identical to those of nisin A. Based on all our data gathered so far, L. lactis 19.3 is a good candidate for a starter or protective culture in the manufacturing of both fermented dairy or vegetarian food products.

Speaker
Biography:

Njah Alonazi is currently a PhD student at Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Abstract:

Genetically modified foods have been developed through the application of genetic engineering techniques. Genetically modified crops provide a significant advantage and hence enhance a higher yield and nutritional value. However, in Saudi Arabia, citizens have expressed concerns in understanding what they feed on. Mawgood, Gassem & Al-Doss (2010) carried out an investigation on genetically modified foods in Saudi Arabia, where they conducted a survey and tested two significant samples of the overall study. According to the study, the global trading and cultivation of genetically modified crops has enhanced a significant complexity in the management of microorganisms. The study illustrates that approximately 200 samples were also tested and among the samples approximately 20 products illustrated positive results which were one potato sample, corn samples and ground meat sample. According to the results, the ground meat illustrated a positive result as a result of being added soybean. According to their overall discussion, genetically modified foods were highly impacted by microorganisms as compared to the natural foods. They argued that the labeling requirement of genetically modified foods in Saudi Arabia was initiated to be approximately one percent maximum limit that illustrated the genetically modified foods. If a certain food commodity is initiated with genetically modified product then it is supposed to be illustrated with a triangle in order for the customers to understand what they take in those food commodities. On the other hand, Mawgood, Gassem & Al-Doss (2010) argued that the Saudi Arabia strived to ban the imports of genetically modified foods; therefore, crops that use genetic modified techniques are not allowed in the country.

Amal Alenezi

Dublin Institute Of Technology, Ireland

Title: Effect of food spoilage bacteria on food
Biography:

Amal Alenezi is a Ph. D. student at Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Abstract:

Food spoilage can be described as the process by which food quality becomes compromised and its edibility significantly reduced. Numerous signs are indicative of food spoilage and they range from changes in the ordinary appearance of the foods, changes in its texture, bad odor and poor taste. Although some spoiled foods may be consumed without causing harm, most of them are toxic in essence and may result in serious health complications. Microorganisms such as bacteria, insect larvae and fungi are responsible for food spoilage. Even with the present day preservation methods, food spoilage remains to be a significant problem in the contemporary food industries. Bacteria have the unique ability to form structures that are extremely resistant to harsh environmental conditions. These spores are resistant to freezing, high temperatures and other forms of drying. This makes them escape conditions in the conventional preservation techniques leading to the rotting of food. Some of the most common spore forming bacteria that resistant to various preservation methods belongs to the genus Bacillus and Clostridium. According to Doyle (2009), other species such as Erwinia carotovora are responsible for soft-rot type common in tomatoes. Additionally, blue mold rot in tomatoes is known to be caused by Fusarium as well as Penicillium species of bacteria. Pseudomona spp. which typically grows at a temperature of 4 ºC is also responsible for a significant portion of food spoilage. Two species of Pseudomonas, P. fragi and P. putrefaciens are chiefly responsible for the kind of spoilage that occurs in fermented milk products such as butter and cheese. Campylobacter butyricum and Campylobacter sporogenes have also been reported to cause this sort of decomposition. Botrytis cinerea and Guignardia bidwellii take credit for the kind of spoilage occurring in grapes and strawberry. Guignardia bidwellii cause big mummy rot in grapes. Therefore, it is evident that bacteria are a threat to food security.

Speaker
Biography:

Chimya Markus Gundiri is currently a PhD student in the Food Sciences Department at The University of Nottingham. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Biomedical Sciences from The University of Manchester and a Master’s degree in Biotechnology from The University of Essex.

Abstract:

The internalization and activity of Listeria monocytogenes in growing plants to better understand the saprophytic lifestyle of the bacteria has remained a relatively unexplored area. Salad vegetables are a recognized vehicle for transmission of L. monocytogenes but the question of how it contaminates the produce in the first place has been neglected. Red bell peppers imported to a processing and packaging company which tested negative for Listeria monocytogenes upon arrival but positive after being cut open. The seeds of the peppers were identified as the source of contamination and the chemotactic response to the pepper isolates to several plant sugars was investigated. It was hypothesized that a small number of infected fruits were resulting in widespread cross-contamination of product after these fruit were cut open. A survey of bell peppers purchased from local shops was also carried out to investigate the frequency of isolation of Listeria monocytogenes. From the survey (n=40), 5 peppers imported from The Netherland tested positive for L. monocytogenes (5/40) while those imported from Spain and Morocco (n=20 of each) were negative. We will present data and images to show the response of Listeria monocytogenes to sugars and pepper extracts which suggests that the bacteria are repelled by the flesh of the peppers possibly due to its capsaicinoid contents but are attracted to the seeds inside the peppers. This suggests that an internal plant system could be the route of migration for the bacteria.

Speaker
Biography:

Madiha El Awamie got MSc degree in 2007 at Benghazi University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department Benghazi Libya and she worked as lecturer assistant in Botany department at Benghazi University. Dissemination of research master's "Study of the quarterly change in the volatile oils marjoram plant in Libya," a scientific conference in Malaysia Year 8/2007. Now she is a PhD student at Nottingham University.

Abstract:

The public is demanding foods that are more natural and less processed; this has led to a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants. Liquorice plant is used as a traditional medicine in different countries around the world to treat many diseases including bacterial infections and also commonly used as flavouring in food products. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity of a Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a natural preservative. This particular extract is derived from the waste material left over after processing of the plant material for food production. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened against eight species of Gram- negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram negative bacteria include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. For all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density, but the cells were not killed since the cells were still viable when plated out. The Minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and Minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape and results using a bioluminescent reporter strain indicated that cell energy levels were reduced. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Biography:

Narjes Haji Dashti is currently working as an Associate Professor of Microbiology at the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University. She has obtained her Master’s degree in the same field at Oregon State University, USA followed by a PhD at McGill University, Canada. Her research interests include plant pathology, virology, soil microbiology, microbial bioremediation and hydrocarbon degradation. Her primary research focuses include; the beneficial applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on both leguminous and non-leguminous crops and the hydrocarbon degrading potential of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria as a mean of bioremediation of oil spill contaminated sites. She has over 21 publications and has presented many of her finding in both national and international conferences. She is an active Member of international association of the agricultural economists, USA and the Genetics Society, UK.

Abstract:

A study of the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, on fruit yields and chemical contents on cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits was performed. Two CMV strains CMV-KU1 which is a locally isolated CMV associated with a benign viral satellite RNA and CMV-16 a satellite free virus that causes severe stunting, manifested by vegetative and fruit yield loss in tomato were used. The study was conducted in parallel on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B and results obtained for each were compared. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant, even of those plants infected by the CMV viruses, compared to the healthy control treatments. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. However, PGPRs had no influence on reduced sugars, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content but reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits of infected plants compared to healthy controls.