Day 1 :
Foodborne Zoonoses Consultancy, UK
Time : 10:05 - 10:40
Diane G Newell is an internationally recognized expert in zoonotic diseases, particularly those transmitted through the food chain. Her major research interest has been the pathogenesis and epidemiology of Campylobacter. While working for the Veterinary Laboratories Agency, she planned and managed the EU Network of Excellence Med-Vet-Net. In 2009, she became an Independent Consultant and undertakes work for governments and commercial enterprises. She has also held academic positions, including the FC Donders Chair at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She currently holds Visiting Professorships at the University of Surrey and the Royal Agricultural University. In 2009, she was appointed as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for services to science.
Mathematical models are essential to the development of microbiological risk assessments for food-borne pathogens. Such models are highly dependent on assumptions incorporated and in particular, on the human dose response data used. However, such information is often sparse, inaccurate or even absent. Consequently many dose response curves have been estimated from epidemiological studies or in vivo and in vitro models. Multiple interconnecting factors are important in determining infectious dose, including host status, microbial properties and environmental conditions. Most recently the importance of the host microbiome has also been recognized. One major assumption in dose response curves is that all strains of the same pathogen species are equally virulent. However, strains of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, can vary significantly in a range of properties, which might affect the minimum dose required to generate disease. For example, bacterial mechanisms that facilitate pathogen survival of as they transit from farm-to-fork will influence the number of viable organisms ingested by the host, while bacterial capacity to adapt to environmental changes may influence host colonization potential. In addition, not all strains have the genes for, or express, the classical virulence factors that induce disease, such as toxins. This final observation is particularly important given the trend towards the detection of bacterial virulence-associated genes in foods rather than strain isolation. Thus we propose that microbiological risk assessments should incorporate more realistic dose response data for food-borne pathogens, based on known knowledge of strain variation in environmental survival, colonization and clinical outcome.
The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
Keynote: Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads sold at oopular food establishments in Trinidad
Time : 10:40 - 11:15
Neela Badrie is a Professor and Researcher at the Faculty of Food and Agriculture, The University of the West Indies. She is the recipient of several awards such as a Fulbright Scholarship, European Union/CARPIMS Fellowship, Rudranath Capildeo gold medal for applied science and technology and the TWAS/CARISCIENCE Young Scientist Award. Her research focus is on food safety, risk assessment, food microbiology and food product development.
Ready-to-eat salads are becoming increasingly popular as they combine the healthy characteristics of fruits and vegetables with short preparation time prior to consumption. This study seeks to determine the microbial quality of ready-to-eat salads that are sold in food establishments in Trinidad. A total of 56 samples were collected from two supermarkets and two shopping malls and were analyzed using culture procedures. The total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli colonies were determined for each salad sample. Samples were also tested for the presence of Salmonella spp. The average number of aerobic bacteria was 6.3±1.1 log CFU g-1 with a range 4.3-7.5 log CFU g-1. The level of aerobic bacteria in the salad samples was dependent on the food establishment from which it was purchased and varied significantly across food establishments (P<0.001). The shopping malls also had higher levels of aerobic bacteria than supermarkets (P<0.001). E. coli was found in 100% of the salad samples analyzed and the level present varied significantly among food establishments (P<0.05). The average E. coli colony count was 3.7±0.7 log CFU g-1 ranging from 2.7-5.0 log CFU g-1. Salmonella spp. was detected in 67.86% of the samples analyzed; however, there were no significant differences in the number of samples contaminated with the bacteria among food establishments (P>0.05). The number of salad samples contaminated with Salmonella varied significantly during the two periods of testing, week 1 and week 2 (P<0.05). This study confirmed the need to implement measures to reduce the risk of microbial contamination.
SK Rajasthan Agricultural University, India
Time : 11:30- 12:05
Prakash Narain Kalla has completed his PhD from Rajasthan Agricultural University, India. He has published more than 70 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an expert of reputed Editorial Board and he had visited 10 different countries for academic venture and has experience of more than 35 years in different capacity.
The present paper would like to project an Indian scenario on malnutrition and the role of extension education in alleviating the malady as: Nutritional disorders are diseases in humans that are directly or indirectly caused by a lack of essential nutrients in the diet. Nutritional diseases are commonly associated with chronic malnutrition. Additionally, conditions such as obesity from overeating can also cause or contribute to serious health problems. The World Health Organization has reported hunger and related malnutrition as the greatest single threat to the world's public health. Improving nutrition is widely regarded as the most effective form of aid. Long term measures include fostering nutritionally dense agriculture by increasing yields, while making sure negative consequences affecting yields in the future are minimized. Agricultural extension is greatly based on awareness programs. Present paper describes the role of awareness in combating mineral deficiency in crop plants using traditional breeding and modern biotechnological approach for production of nutritionally rich food and food supplements. Awareness programs have helped in combating impact of nutritional disorders in crop plants, which were organized through: Kisan Goshthis, Kisan melas, folders/brochures/ booklets, campaigns, Kisan call centers, Media: News paper/Radio/TV/Multimedia and web.
- Special Session on How acoustic emissions technology will impact microbiology
University of Kentucky, USA
Time : 12:05-13:05
Clair L Hicks has completed his PhD at University of Wisconsin, USA in 1974 and began his research and teaching career at University of Kentucky. He has served as Commodity Leader for the Food Science faculty and as their Director of Undergraduate Studies. He has published more than 73 refereed papers and 127 abstracts. He has served as a Board Member for the American Dairy Science Association and for the Institute of Food Technologist Bluegrass Section. He has also served as Board Member and Chair of the Editorial Board for the Journal of Dairy Science.
Acoustic emissions (AE) generated by three strains of Escherichia coli (5024-parent, 8279-mutant and 8279-random/unrelated) and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 infected with three bacteriophages (c2, sk1, and ml3; infected at 90 min) will be overviewed to demonstrate the sensitivity and accuracy of this technique. An acoustic sensor with an optimum range between 35-100 kHz was inserted into the growth vessel to capture AE data. E. coli were used to determine if the AE technique could be used to differentiate closely related strains while L. lactis bacteriophage infections were used to determine if AE techniques could track host stress and infection cycles. AE data was collected for Absolute Energy (ABE), Peak Frequency (PF) and Centroid Frequency (CF). When the CF for the parent and mutant E. coli strains were analyzed at 5 kHz intervals 14 areas within the frequency pattern were significantly different and almost all patterns were different for the 8279 strain suggesting that AE could be a powerful tool in identifying microorganism strains that were closely related. When the L. lactis host was infected with bacteriophage ml3, sk1 or c2, sufficient differences in ABE, CF and PF occurred, allowing for the identification of the bacteriophage and tracking of the infection cycles. The AE data suggested that bacteriophage sk1 and c2 caused greater stress on the host, lactis C2, than bacteriophage ml3. After infection, when the bacteriophage replication began, the AE information being emitted increased significantly from that of normal host activity.
- Track 1: Food Microbiology Track 2: Microbiology of Fermented Foods and Beverages Track 3: Food Borne Pathogens, Diseases & Public Health Track 4: Microbial Ecology of Foods Track 6: Single Cell Protein Track 7: Microbiology and Biotechnological Exploitation Track 9: Food Mycology
US Food and Drug Administration, USA
Title: Cleavage sensitive antibody for the detection of type A botulinum neurotoxin by biolayer interferometry
Time : 14:05-14:30
Shashi K Sharma currently serves as Team Leader of Special Pathogens and Select Agents (SPSA) at the Division of Microbiology in the Office of Regulatory Science. He oversees a group of researchers and support scientists engaged in a multi-parameter research program to develop and apply microbiological and molecular genetic strategies for detecting and identifying select agent and bacterial foodborne pathogens. His early work on the development of monoclonal antibodies and immunodiagnostics of HIV and Typhoid including a unique detection system based on liposomal technology for Syphilis antigen. Dr. Sharma received his Ph.D. in Microbiology from University of Bhopal, India in 1992. In 1994, he joined the Department of Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, where he worked on the structure and function of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. Dr. Sharma came to the Food and Drug Administration in 2002 and has since carried out numerous experiments relating to the detection and identification of select agents and foodborne pathogens. He is a member of the American Society for Microbiology and has co-authored more than 50 publications and book chapters on detection and identification of select agents such as Botulinum, Ricin, Bacillius anthracis and Francisella tularensis. His current research focuses on the development and validation of an effective and sensitive detection system for Clostridium botulinum toxins in foods. He has served in advisory role to the US government agencies on select agents assay development and a founding executive board member of Institute of Advance Science, Dartmouth, MA.
Background: Contemporary technologies and assay methods are being explored continuously for rapid and sensitive detection of biologically active BoNTs in food and environmental samples to facilitate enhanced public health response. Previously, FRET based substrates were used to detect the presence of active BoNTs in samples. However their efficacy to screen food samples and identify serotypes associated with unknown samples is largely limited. In this work, we have evaluated the application of cleavage sensitive monoclonal antibodies (CSM) to detect enzymatically active BoNT Type A using Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI). CSM are developed to recognize only the neo-epitopes that are generated after the cleavage of target substrates by BoNTs. Methods: BLI platform (Pall Fortebio Octet) was used to evaluate the ability of type-A CSM (CSM-A) to specifically detect the catalytic action of BoNT/A, by measuring its binding to the BoNT/A cleaved fragment of SNAP-25. BLI is a powerful, versatile, rapid and label-free biosensor tool for characterizing the real-time kinetics of binding interactions between ligands and analytes. Full-length His-SNAP-25 (ligand) was coated on the surface of the sensor tips. Toxin and CSM-A (analyte) were placed in 96-well polypropylene plates. SNAP-25 coated sensor tips were then exposed to the wells containing toxin at different concentration (0, 1, 3, 6 and 12.5 ng/ml) and for varying incubation times (30-90 minutes). The loaded tips were then incubated with CSM-A, and the binding activity of the CSM-A was studied. Results: The CSM-A based BLI assay demonstrated concentration and activity dependent binding characteristics and can reliably report BoNT/A enzymatic activity. Notably it required less than 5 hours for sensitive and specific detection of BoNT/A. The preliminary studies showed that CSM-A based BLI assay was able to detect active toxins dilutions in the range of 1 ng/ml (in buffer). Conclusions: CSM show potential to rapidly detect biologically active toxins on the BLI platform. With the development of cleavage sensitive monoclonal antibodies specific to other serotypes of BoNTs, high throughput serotype specific rapid screening assays can be developed. The ability of this platform to detect and quantify the toxin in food samples is currently being evaluated.
Food Standards Australia, Australia
Title: Challenges associated with hepatitis A virus in berries and berry- products: A food regulators perspective
Time : 14:30-14:55
Scott Crerar is a General Manager of Risk and Regulatory Assessment at Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). He has oversight of chemical and microbiological risk assessment and social science and regulatory impact assessments. He has previously led the Strategic Science, International and Surveillance Section and managed the development and implementation of the FSANZ Science Strategy and international work including APEC activities. He has worked in food safety and regulation for many years and undertaken consultancies in food safety and food quality for the FAO and WHO, as well as working throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks associated with ready to eat berries and berry products have emerged globally as a public health threat in recent years. Several consecutive multi-country food borne HAV outbreaks were experienced in Europe from 2012-2014, Australia and New Zealand in 2015 and Canada in 2016. Globally, berry growing and processing areas and their associated supply chains are diverse and complex, making traceability and certification of good agricultural and good manufacturing processes a complex task for industry suppliers and food safety regulators. In this context, traditional risk assessments are problematic due to limitations in data on prevalence in berries and subsequent assessment of exposure. For ready to eat fresh or frozen products, there are currently no effective, realistic and validated risk management options to eliminate viral contamination prior to consumption without changing the normally desired characteristics of the food. Testing for HAV in berries is problematic and batch testing is not a reliable indicator of the relative safety of the berries or berry product. Testing may be appropriate for outbreak investigations or in circumstances where there is a strong epidemiological suspicion of contamination. Data from the outbreak of HAV associated with berries that occurred in Australia in 2015 will be presented. The challenges associated with control, particularly in obtaining assurances around good agricultural and hygienic practices were evident as a result of this outbreak. As these are critical to the risk management of ready to eat berries, food safety regulators should have mechanisms in place to ensure compliance with these practices.
University of Nottingham, UK
Title: Detection of viable Mycobacteria in milk and milk products – implications for the dairy industry and human health
Time : 14:55-15:20
Original training was in Biochemistry and Genetics, but the focus of my current research is on the application of molecular techniques to study various aspects of applied microbiology. Long term interest in the development of phage-based methods of bacterial detection (specifically Mycobacteria). Recent research focus has been on the development of rapid, non-recombinant, phage-based tests for the detection of mycobacterial pathogens for the food and agriculture sectors.
The introduction of routine pasteurisation of milk and a TB eradication program resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of cases of human TB in the UK, from more than 50,000 cases per annum in the 1940’s to less than 50 cases of human Mycobacterium bovis infections being reported per annumn since the 1990’s. However there are many reports of viable Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP) being detected in retail milk and milk products, indicating that this group of bacteria can survive commercial pasteurisation. Although not a recognised zoonotic organism, an association has been established between MAP and the development of Crohn’s disease, and regulatory bodies have advised that MAP should be eradicated from the food chain on a precautionary principle. We have developed a method to rapidly and sensitively detect pathogenic mycobacteria in milk and have showed it can be used to detect viable MAP in milk products, including powdered infant formula. We have been working with raw milk cheese producers to develop methods to detect M. bovis in raw milk to ensure the safety of their products. Given increasing consumer interest in the consumption of raw milk, and the resurgence of bovine TB in the UK, these methods will provide new ways to allow quality assurance tests to be performed. I will review the work that we have carried out and also discuss how this technique can also be used to develop new approaches to eradicate these endemic diseases from diary cattle to further improve food safety.
University of Leuven, Belgium
Time : 15:20-15:45
Leen Van Campenhout has completed her PhD in 2000 at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium. From 1999 to 2004, she was R&D Manager in Enzymology & Microbiology in an international feed additive company. Then she became Professor at the Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen and at the University of Leuven. Her expertise is situated in food microbiology. Her main research topics include (i) (mild) conservation of food using e.g. Modified Atmosphere Packaging, (ii) the microbiology of new food matrices, such as insects, and (iii) the implementation of new technologies, e.g. metagenomics, in the food industry.
Traditional animal protein sources will not be able to supply the growing world population. Edible insects are put forward as a sustainable alternative. While the novel food regulation is currently being revised, in Belgium the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) has already authorized the marketing of ten insect species. A complete rearing and processing chain is now establishing in Belgium and other countries. Yet the knowledge on the microbial status and food safety of insects during rearing, processing and storage is very scarce. Therefore, we conduct several research projects aiming at investigating the microbial community of edible insects “from farm to fork”. An overview of the results obtained will be presented. As to the rearing phase, key aspects currently under investigation are (i) the microbial dynamics during industrial rearing of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria), (ii) the impact of specific practices during rearing on the microbial quality, such as starving and rinsing before killing, and (iii) transmission of pathogens from the substrate to the insects. Also a survey is being conducted on the microbial quality of different batches obtained from several industrial rearing facilities, using both culture-dependent analyses as well as culture-independent metagenomics. As to processing of insects, the impact of processing steps on the insect microbiota is determined. Processing steps currently under investigation include cooling, blanching, freeze-drying and microwave drying. Finally, shelf life experiments with a number of foods containing insects will be illustrated.
Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain
Title: Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequential inoculated fermentation influences in wine quality and acidic composition of Spanish wine
Time : 15:45-16:10
Santiago Benito is a University Professor in the Madrid Polytechnic University. He is the Director of the Madrid University Experimental Winery, a scientific center. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.
The scientific work researched the influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on low-acidity Spanish grape must from the south of Spain. Combined fermentations between Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared to single control fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The results showed important differences in various parameters such as acidity, sensorial parameters, non-volatile and volatile compounds. The studied Spanish wine quality increased due to L. thermotolerans acidification ability. The acidification produced a L-lactic acid increase of 3.18 g/L and a decrease of 0.22 in pH compared to the studied control performed by S. cerevisiae.
A’Sharqiyah University, Oman
Time : 16:25-16:50
Louay Labban is currently a Professor of Nutrition and Dietetics at A’Sharqiyah University in Sultante of Oman. Earlier he taught for 6 years at Kalamoon University in Syria. He taught several courses related to nutrition and dietetics. He has also served as Vice Dean of Faculty of Health Sciences at the same university. Before joining Kalamoon University, he taught several courses in American Universities and also worked for different pharmaceutical companies in the United States for many years and he was responsible for studying the effect of newly developed medication on the nutritional status of volunteered patients and he also studied the drug-nutrient interaction for these medications. He has published several papers in regarding nutritional intervention in Diabetes Mellitus management. He has received his Bachelor degree from Damascus University in Syria, Master degree from University of Newcastle upon Tyne in England and his Doctorate degree from La Salle University in the United States.
Mycotoxins are group of fungal toxins that are widespread in agricultural commodities and food. The most notorious toxin of this group is Aflatoxin. It is produced by Aspergillus fungus and can result in major economic losses and can negatively affect animal and human health by causing both acute and chronic toxicity in animals and humans including acute liver damage, liver cirrhosis and liver cancers. Oman is a major importer of different agriculture commodities such as cereals, nuts, dried fruit, spices, oil seeds, dried peas, spices, beans and fruit. As Oman has a subtropical climate, food and feed commodities are susceptible to contamination and the food chain can be affected by poor storage of these products. In order to prevent the economic loss and the negative impact on health, Aflatoxin has to be detected in food chain. Some analytical techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), two-dimensional thin layer chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been available for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of AFs. Although prevention is the best control strategy, it is not always possible to prevent all mycotoxin contamination. To control the risks associated with AF contamination, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach can be used. This approach involves strategies for prevention, control, good manufacturing practices and quality control at all stages of production from the field to the final consumer. Cheap and environmentally sustainable methods that can be applied pre or post-harvest to reduce the contamination of AFs are available. These methods include proper irrigation, choice of genetically resistant crop strains and bio-pesticide management which involves using a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus that competitively excludes toxic strains. Other methods include sorting and disposal of visibly moldy or damaged seeds, reducing the bioavailability of aflatoxins using clay and chemo-protection.
CIRAD – UMR Qualisud – Réunion, France
Time : 16:50-17:15
Jean-Christophe Meile has completed his PhD in molecular genetics in 2006 from Paris-Orsay University and postdoctoral studies from CNRS at University of Toulouse (France). In 2011, he joined the Qualisud (Integrated Approach to Food Quality) research unit of Cirad. His research activities focus on the development of molecular methods in food microbiology for food safety and traceability. Based in the french Reunion island since 2015, he microbial ecology of tropical food. He has published about 15 papers in peer-reviewed journals.
The Food Law (European regulation CE No.178/2002), applied since january 2005, imposes to all food processing companies of the European Union (EU) to keep consumers informed about the nature of the product and any sanitary problems. Moreover, it imposes the traceability of foodstuffs at all steps of the food production. However, there is, at the moment, no real analytical tool for food traceability allowing authentication of the product origin or the farming type in a simple, fast and inexpensive way. The skin of fresh foods (vegetables, fruits) carries microbial communities that vary according to environmental parameters (soil, plant variety and physiology ...). Previous works showed that there is a link between the geographical origin of food and the structure of the microbial communities of fish, fruits and marine salts. This was performed using a method based on the extraction, PCR amplification and profiling of microbial DNA regions to study bacterial and fungal communities. Evidences suggest that there is a specific signature of food origin at the microbial ecology level that can be determined by molecular techniques. Appropriate statistical methods applied to molecular signatures comparison can help reveal significant differences between samples. From these data could be extracted markers that are specific of a region or a mode of production. For example, recent work using this approach showed that, it was possible to distinguish between organic from conventional fruits. Following the presentation of several studies their potential use for fraud detection and authentication controls in food will be discussed.
Central University of Haryana, India
Title: Exploration of antibacterial and biopreservation potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of India
Time : 17:15-17:40
Tejpal Dhewa is currently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition Biology, Central University of Haryana. Earlier, he taught in the Department of Microbiology, Bhaskarcharya College of Applied Sciences (University of Delhi), New Delhi and Dolphin (PG) Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun. He received his master degree in Microbiology from University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and earned his doctoral degree in Microbiology from Bundelkhand University, Jhansi. He is involved in teaching PG students with special focus on food microbiology, medical microbiology and industrial microbiology. He has guided several M.Sc. students in DIBNS. He has executed research projects supported by Mascoma Corporation (USA) and University of Delhi (DU), Delhi. Currently he is Principal Investigator (PI) of DU Innovation Project on development of a real time biosensor to detect microorganisms in food and agricultural products. Recently he has completed student research project on evaluation of probiotics. He developed two antimicrobial formulation against methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and filed two national patents. He also developed freeze dried synbiotic formulation for extension of shelf life of probiotic products. He has published more than 25 papers, 10 presentations in National and International Seminars and Conferences, 1 book, 3 monographs, 3 popular articles, and several book chapters to his credit.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally regarded as safe bacteria and have significant role in human daily life. These bacteria produce certain antimicrobial agents like organic acids, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide which helps to extend the shelf life of various food products. The aim of this study was to screen the antibacterial activity of LAB isolated from traditional fermented foods of India (especially rural regions) against the most common food borne (indicator) pathogens. The antagonistic potential of these isolates against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species and Bacillus cereus were tested using agar well diffusion method. Out of 30 lactic acid bacteria isolates five isolates (i.e., LAB1, LAB2, LAB3, LAB4 and LAB5) were effective against all selected indicator pathogens. Amongst the five isolates, LAB3 exhibited the highest antibacterial activity in terms of zone of inhibition (>18±1.5 mm) and least activity was shown by isolate LAB2 (>10±1.8 mm). The degree of antimicrobial potential among the isolates was in the order of LAB3>LAB1>LAB4>LAB5>LAB2. Overall, the isolated LAB exhibited significant inhibitory effects against wide range of food borne pathogens. Although, the spectrum of inhibition was varied for the isolates examined but the above finding explore their potential application as a natural biopreservatives (i.e., bacteriocins) due to inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria, maintaining the nutritive quality, flavor enhancer and extending the shelf life in wide range of food products (such studies are under progress in laboratory). Moreover, the characterization of antibacterial agents helps in the improvement of food product safety.